CFR`s World101 Library explains everything you need to know about climate change. In light of the above, 179 countries and the EU spent two weeks in Paris in December 2015 to draft the final text of an agreement to keep global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius and, if possible, below 1.5 degrees Celsius. The United States, the world`s second-largest emitter, is the only country to withdraw from the agreement, a move by President Donald J. Trump that came into effect in November 2020. Some other countries have not officially approved the agreement: Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Libya, South Sudan, Turkey and Yemen. A study published in 2018 shows a threshold where temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees (ambiguous expression, continuity would be «4-5 degrees Celsius») compared to pre-industrial levels, compared to pre-industrial levels, thanks to returns of self-amplitude in the climate system, indicating that this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target agreed in the Paris climate agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out: «We find that in its history, the Earth has never had a nearly stable state, warmer than that of pre-industrial, and suggests that there is a significant risk that the system itself, because of all these other processes, will want to continue warming, even if we stop emissions. This means not only reducing emissions, but much more.  The agreement officially entered into force on 4 November 2016, a few days before COP22, and was ratified by 169 countries (including the European Union 28), which account for 87.75% of emissions. The Foreign Affairs Council has adopted conclusions on climate diplomacy. The Council reaffirms that the EU will continue to be at the forefront of the fight against climate change on a global scale. It also recognizes the effects of climate change on international security and stability. The EU is committed to increasing its financial contribution to aid to developing countries in the implementation of the Paris Agreement. The EU and its Member States remain the largest provider of public climate finance, with a total contribution of EUR 20.4 billion in 2017.
The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015.